Main Article Content
The Rice Irrigation System (RIS) is designed to irrigate rice and related crops in a crop rotation. RIS consists of irrigation and drainage canals, irrigation maps (divided into checks by rollers), structures (water intakes, pumping stations, sedimentation tanks). After sowing rice, the field is flooded with a layer of water. The layer height is adjustable during the growing season. Before cleaning, the water remaining in the check is discarded. A change in the natural water and salt regimes of lands leads, on the one hand, to an increase in the biological productivity of soils, on the other, to a violation of the hydrochemical equilibrium of soil solutions and an increase in moisture and salt exchange between soil and groundwater. The role of these processes in the formation of reclamation conditions is different: on the one hand, they contribute to an increase in soil fertility, on the other hand, they can lead to a deterioration in the basic properties of soils as a result of secondary salinization, alkalinization or an increase in acidity. An important factor of environmental impact is filtration losses from main and distribution canals. The magnitude of these losses largely determines the negative changes in the reclamation and hydrogeological situation (flooding of lands, pollution of groundwater). To solve the problem of improving the ecological safety of the functioning of a new generation RIS, it is necessary to identify the main factors and assess their role in various scenarios of environmental impact. The numerical values of the criteria significantly depend on the climatic characteristics. In the article, the authors consider the production of agricultural products in the economy as a multi-level system, at each level of which there are certain resources, ranked by a mathematical model according to the degree of importance of their use and in time and place of their use.
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