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         Agro-industrial complex of our country has huge potential for agriculture development providing that there is effective regulation of land relations, and efficient, scientifically based land use focused on preservation, maintenance, and boost of the most valuable land property - soil fertility. Russia possesses 9% of the world's croplands, while it produces just about 2% of the world's agricultural output. Total agricultural land is 383.7 mln ha (22.4% of Russia's land resources). Over the past 25 years total arable land has decreased from 132.3 to 115.1 mln ha. Sustainable social and economic development of Russia is impossible without the efficient use of agricultural land. It is the key element in ensuring of food security, which is one of the major components of the national security, incremental growth and development of the economy, and which is the way of life and the means to improve the quality of life of a large portion of the home population. Therefore the primary tasks and objectives of the efficient use of these lands are: necessity of preservation and efficient use of agricultural and cultivated land, assistance to growth in production of high-quality and eco-friendly agricultural commodities while conserving soil and meeting the requirements of the environmental regulations. Analysis of the trends and problems of the land relations development is based upon the data of the studies funded through the grants from the President of the Russian Federation, and upon the recommendations delivered during the Parliamentary hearings and round tables held at the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation in 2017-2018.

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