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Research was carried out in 2022-2023 with the aim of studying the improvement of the production of organic fertilizer using the vermiremediation method on the chemical properties of vermicompost and the yield of potatoes cultivated on leached chernozem of the Stavropol Upland. The scientific novelty of the research was that for the first time in the conditions of the Stavropol Territory, the improvement of seasonal production of environmentally friendly organic fertilizer and the effect of vermicompost on potato yields were tested. Depending on the types of worms and the dose of the biological product, the optimal chemical composition of the organic fertilizer has been established. The experimental design involved the study of the following options: types of worms (factor A) and the dose of a biological product used for the reproduction and life of soil-forming flora (factor B). The experiment was launched at the training and experimental station of the Stavropol State Agrarian University. Seasonal production was carried out in six pits each 18.0 ͯ 3.0 ͯ 0.8 m (experiment area - 324 m2). About 42 tons of a mixture of 25 tons of cattle manure and 17 tons of winter wheat straw were loaded into each pit. The biological product was used in various doses after 3 days from the start of the experiment. After 2 weeks, we began to populate the substrate according to the experimental scheme with the species of red Californian worms (Lumbricus rubellus) and Dendrobaena veneta.
The maximum indicators of the content of macro- and microelements in vermicompost were noted in the variant where vermicompost was produced by the Dendrobena Veneta worm and the biological product “Baikal EM-1” was added at a dose of 70 ml/1t, since the content of macroelements (N - 1.01%, P2O5 - 0.82%, potassium - 0.99%), and mobile forms of a number of trace elements (Mn 39.57 Cu -1.35; Zn - 22.16), significantly exceeded the options where the production was carried out by the red Californian worm and a mixture of red Californian (Lumbricus rubellus) + Dendrobena Veneta against the background of another dose of the biological product.
The near-planting application of 3 t/ha of vermicompost, obtained by producing the worm Dendrobena Veneta and the application of the biological product "Baikal EM-1" at a dose of 70 ml/1t, contributed to obtaining the maximum yield of potatoes (variety) - 21 t/ha, significantly exceeding similar indicators of the compared options.
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